You know: they are books read in one breath, but there are those in which the last page seems to be the goal nejnedosažitelnější in the world. Fortunately, however, found a few wise minds to waste time reading so worried that they had developed a method by which it could be reading a little faster.
The so-called. ** Speed ** method, of which there will be discussed for the first time seriously engaged the American philosopher and psychologist Walter B. Pitkin of the 20th of the last century (his summary book „The Art of Rapid Reading,“ published in 1929). Pitkinovy foolish at first glance the idea did not fit, fortunately, on the contrary – his findings were further developed and improved and today celebrates its successes around the world. The most prominent promoters of „speed-reading“ techniques here include Mr. David Gruber, who is a lecturer and author of several publications dealing with (only) this issue, but also holds the exclusive word marks „Speed“ and „rational reading.“
[Http://www.vysokeskoly.cz/system/data/3041/studium.jpg * *] They are books which are no and no good to the last page …
** Speed may not be applied everywhere ** But I can not believe that Speed is equal to a thorough reading: Gruber in the original definition is not a universal method applicable to any kind of document, but only for „advanced type of perception and thought process of the text in a situation where it is most difficult text medium (standard administration, regular mail, popularizing articles in magazines) and the goal of reading is the most moderate (capture the main idea, the main opportunities and threats, important details). " The effectiveness of such a reading is then 60% of text comprehension and above – therefore serves rather to identify the main points or ideas in the text and keep them in memory at least until the moment before you will be able to enroll. Gruber therefore defines yet another, broader term "rational reading.“ Such reading involves rychlovyhledávání, Speed and rychlostudium and it generally refers to „any textual information in any reader's objectives.“ From this definition it is clear that knowledge alone Speed technology for maximum efficiency is not enough.
** It takes training ** Rational method of reading is definitely not learn in five minutes and untrained reader can easily miss the contrary effect – in the worst possible scenario then reads too long, or vice versa so quickly that the text can not remember anything. It is therefore no coincidence that on the market today there are not many theoretical as well as of educational manuals on the subject, but also offer a wide variety of multimedia helpers. You can also attend one of the attendance of specialized courses. Just an idea: „ordinary“ man apparently manages to read the approximately 150 to 200 words per minute, while the „average“ graduate pětadvacetihodinového basic course is said to handle over the same period from 400 to 500 words. But there are also those who come to a limit of 700 words per minute. What's more: even 1000 words in 60 seconds they are supposedly not so unrealistic …
** Speed What is good? ** The main purpose of Speed-reading is, very simply, to get the text as much information as possible in the shortest possible time. An important role is played not only a thorough job with eye movements, but also the memory and, last but not least, the ability to separate the „wheat from the chaff“ – that is distinguished in the text of the relevant information from the less relevant. Speed allows you to read words in groups instead of individual words – ie. That the individual line up staying twice less. Speed can be compared to the situation when you started to read words correctly when you first look at them, without having to having to spell fairly and perceive individual letters.
** ** The basic steps All manuals describing the method Speed consistently emphasize the principles which should apply also for „normal“ reading, that is enough light, comfortable chairs, proper posture and continuous stretching of the body, concentration, adequate environment suitable for reading, the correct length of paper or monitor, etc. Though these propositions would be if Speed-written in capital letters, not with them further. Go directly to the bases themselves rychločetby.
*** Step 1: The text you first look ** Before you start reading, you should first read the text quickly (the word „fast“ here means about 30 seconds in a short article about 3 minutes for a longer text, 5–8 minutes to book). This brief provides an overview of looking at it, what you read, how the text is long, as it is structured, what it is about its information richness, language style, expertise, etc. The orientation of the text is simply base.
*** Step 2: Bring your memory ** Before the first reading can also relive their knowledge and understanding of the topic. This step will take you to the text „closer“, more Put yourself into it and again, you'll know what to expect, what it look easier to understand and most importantly respect. The text also try to approach motivation, ie, as if you enjoyed that it will learn something new that will enrich you and that you will surely enjoy.
*** Step 3: Read at Large ** Speed requires large optical scattering, which can be practiced in many ways (simple and complex exercises offered by most handbooks on Speed). After some training, these movements can be applied to the text itself. ** How to: ** From pencils, skewers or knitting needles should create a „pointer“ and watch with him in the following format „zig zag“ with sharp peaks (while not achieving to the very edges of the text). First, try to watch only two lines at a time and gradually increase the boom (thus supposedly more experienced readers can handle up to eight lines). Read silently and try to neartikulovat yet. Remember that initially does not understand the text is so important, the chief is to learn the technique of reading itself. In addition, if you miss some information, which is quite common, do not go back – usually understand it from other lines. Another method is the following text in the same way, only from right to left. Speed reading is then said to double. These methods can then be exchanged must be in the shape of the letter S (again, over two or more rows, depending on experience), the line „zig-zag“ with peaks in the shape of a loop, the shape of vertical waves or their mutual combinations. A very special method is the vertical reading: pointer drag vertically down one side of the text (again, not only at its edge), finger parallel to the other. Eyes follow the text between them. When you're a little more experienced, you will not need a pointer.
[Http://www.vysokeskoly.cz/system/data/3041/noviny.JPG * *] Read quickly are several ways to
*** Step 4: Mind Mapping ** Mind Mapping Technique (mind mapping) consists in the transfer of your mind maps on paper – that is, of course, only in its very simplified form. Is a useful tool when you want to organize your thoughts and write (outline of work, etc.) or any important points from the text (reading books, learning, recording of meetings, lectures, etc..). ** How to: ** Take a white paper about A4 size at least and put it wide. The main theme to draw the middle (instead of words or password is better to paint a picture or sketch – is often more concise) and surround it ring. The ring then guide the individual „branches“ which are more thematic lines. You just select the concise slogan or keyword. Unless this idea is further developed, the subtopics connect to the main branches, and again to mark a key password. For better orientation while recommend using different colors. Map should be brief and clear, since therein lies its value: save time both in the creation and subsequent reading, and also contains all the important information. It has only one problem: as Speed, the method of Mind Mapping is actually far more complex than we have outlined above, and its mastery requires some training.
[Http://www.vysokeskoly.cz/system/data/3041/Mapa.JPG * *] Example diagram obtained using Mind Mapping
** ** Other helpers In addition to the above points with rational method of reading bind other very useful techniques, such as the PhotoReading, physical practice of rapid eye movements while maintaining a high memorability of the text, relaxation and removal of eye fatigue, memory exercises, techniques to increase concentration and suppression of articulation abilities in reading and much more. But more about that until one of our other articles.
** Where to learn more ** The above steps of method only content outlines, by far, this is not a comprehensive guide. As already noted, to learn this method to properly takes time, patience and the use of other (but no less important) methods and principles. As a starter you can help bridge must be one of the following books and web links.
*** ** Useful Literature GRUBER, D. Speed, rychlostudium, info management. Prague: Management Press, 2008. GRUBER, D. Speed, or save time! Prague: Management Press, 2007. GRUBER, D. Save time!: Speed and art of concentration. Prague: Management Press, 2000. GRUBER, D. Save time!: Speed - rychlostudium. Prague: Management Press, 1995. GRUBER, D. Who has read everything?: Rational textbook reading techniques and important intellectual work and self-learning courses. Ostrava: Gruber – TDP, 1991. GRUBER, D. Collection of exercises for rational reading. Ostrava: ČSVTS House of Technology, 1985. Horner, G. Quick Read: Read quickly and efficiently. Brno: Computer Press, 2007. Mistríky, J. Fast read. 2nd ed Bratislava: Slov. ped. exp., 1982. Papík, R. Learn to read. Praha: Grada, 1992. Pitkin, WB The art of rapid reading. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1929. WAINWRIGHT, GR Rapid reading: made simple. London: WH Allen, 1972. ZIELKE, W. How to read faster and better. Prague: Svoboda, 1988.
Sources: Horner, G. Quick Read: Read quickly and efficiently. Brno: Computer Press, 2007. GRUBER, D. Speed, or save time! Prague: Management Press, 2007. GRUBER, D. Save time!: Speed and art of concentration. Prague: Management Press, 2000. „Www.gruber.cz“: http://www.gruber.cz/ „Web.ff.cuni.cz“: http://web.ff.cuni.cz/…novy/102.htm „Interval.cz“: http://interval.cz/…chlostudium/ „Cs.wikipedia.org“: http://cs.wikipedia.org/…/Rychločtení
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